ISMAR 2002
IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality
Sept. 30 - Oct. 1, 2002 in Darmstadt, Germany



Industrial Sponsors and Exhibitors


Invited talks

Dipl.-Ing. Wolfgang Friedrich ARVIKA
Prof. Dr. Hiroshi Ishii Tangible Bits

ARVIKA - Augmented Reality for Development, Production and Service

Dipl.-Ing. Wolfgang Friedrich
Siemens AG, Automation and Drives

Augmented Reality (AR) is a form of human-machine interaction where information is presented in the field of view of an individual. ARVIKA, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research develops this technology and applications in the fields of development, production, and service in the automotive and aerospace industries, for power and processing plants and for machine tools and production machinery.

Up to now, AR has only been a subject of individual research projects and a small number of application-specific industrial projects on a global scale. The current state of the art and the available appliances do not yet permit a product-oriented application of the technology. However, AR enables a new, innovative form of human-machine interaction that not only places the individual in the center of the industrial workflow but also offers a high potential for process and quality improvements in production and process workflows.

ARVIKA is primarily designed to implement an Augmented Reality system for mobile use in industrial applications. The report presents the milestones that have been achieved after a project duration of a full three years: A basic system for Augmented Reality systems was developed based on a specially designed software architecture. Initial application-specific prototypes have been created on this basis and have been evaluated in usability tests. The solutions that can be demonstrated today indicate a good progress of the project in terms of the basic technologies such as Augmented Reality, human machine interaction as well as the AR-oriented information delivery and workflow, but they also show the challenges for further development.

The main topics development, production and service are embedded in a user centered system design that accompanies the project in all phases using ergonomic methods.The basis for all development work in the various fields of application are the Augmented Reality Base Technologies that support high-end / power applications in design in the same way as the low-end use of the technology as a belt-mounted appliance by a skilled worker in real-world production or service environments.

The vision of the project is the provision of user centered stationary and mobile AR systems for industrial applications. The consortium partners have implemented their visions, in the field of development by the comparison of test and calculation of a crash test, the ergonomic layout design and flow visualization of pilot and passenger seats and the design and layout of automobiles.
In the field of production/assembly ARVIKA presents results in "the Electrical troubleshooting in vehicles", "AR-assisted quality assurance along the production chain", "Assembly of the fresh water system in the Airbus", "Manual assembly in one-off and small batch production" and started implementations with AR assisted cabel loom manufactoring at the Airbus and Eurofighter.
AR will play a dominant role in service applications but will be also very exacting in terms of mobility, robustness in an industrial environment. The application scenario "Troubleshooting and service on production systems" is designed to use AR technologies to assist service personnel and end users in troubleshooting, commissioning, maintenance and repair in the field or through direct interaction with the service center. A scene for inspection services is implemented for power plants to show AR advantages supporting service teams.

To implement these visions for the fields of application development, production and service, ARVIKA has chosen an integrated approach: (1)Augmented Reality with object identification and information attachment on the identified object. (2) Information Delivery for AR applications as a function of the working context (3) Interaction, i. e. ARVIKA considers different input/output devices, speech input and output for handsfree operations and designs new user interfaces for mobile IT.
The solutions that can already be demonstrated today testify to a good progress of the project in terms of the enabling technologies such as AR, i.e. marker-based tracking, interaction and AR-oriented delivery of information and workflow, but they also show challenges for further development.

Because a satisfactory solution to meet the known requirements for the registration in AR systems has yet to be found, tracking methods need to be improved and newly developed. In the field of tracking, methods are under development that recognize additional features from the images, e. g. the text on a sign, and that determine the necessary tracking data entirely without markers by using reference images.

With regard to requirements and tests in industrial applications and scientific research, the interdisciplinary consortium which comprises different business ensures the realization of the ambitious objectives: Enterprises in the area of automobile manufacture and aircraft construction: Airbus Deutschland, EADS, DaimlerChrysler, VW, Audi, BMW and Ford. Mid-sized enterprises in the area of tools and machine production, such as DS Technologie, Hüller-Hille, Gühring, Index, and Ex-Cell-O. A representative for process and power plant industries such as Framatome ANP, and specialized companies, such as Zeiss, A.R.T, UID, and VRCom. For IT technologies: Fhg-IGD, ZGDV, and TUM, for applications: Laboratory for Machine Tools and Production Engineering (WZL) and the Institute of Industrial Engineering and Ergonomics (IAW) of the RWTH Aachen, and Siemens as a system integrator and the consortium leader.

Tangible Bits: Designing the Seamless Interface between People, Bits, and Atoms

Hiroshi Ishii
Tangible Media Group
MIT Media Laboratory


Where the sea meets the land, life has blossomed into a myriad of unique forms in the turbulence of water, sand, and wind. At another seashore between the land of atoms and the sea of bits, we are now facing the challenge of reconciling our dual citizenships in the physical and digital worlds. Windows to the digital world are confined to flat square screens and pixels, or "painted bits." Unfortunately, one can not feel and confirm the virtual existence of this digital information through one's body. Tangible Bits, our vision of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), seeks to realize seamless interfaces between humans, digital information, and the physical environment by giving physical form to digital information, making bits directly manipulable and perceptible. The goal is to blur the boundary between our bodies and cyberspace and to turn the architectural space into an interface between the body, bits, and atoms. In this talk, I will present a variety of tangible user interfaces the Tangible Media Group has designed and presented within the CHI, SIGGRAPH, UIST, CSCW, IDSA, ICSID, ICC, and Ars Electronica communities in the past several years.


Hiroshi Ishii's research focuses upon the design of seamless interfaces between humans, digital information, and the physical environment. At the MIT Media Lab, he founded and directs the Tangible Media Group pursuing a new vision of Human Computer Interaction (HCI): "Tangible Bits." His team seeks to change the "painted bits" of GUIs to "tangible bits" by giving physical form to digital information. Ishii and his students have presented their vision of "Tangible Bits" at a variety of academic, industrial design, and artistic venues (including ACM SIGCHI, ACM SIGGRAPH, Industrial Design Society of America, and Ars Electronica), emphasizing that the development of tangible interfaces requires the rigor of both scientific and artistic review. A display of many of the group's projects took place at the NTT InterCommunication Center (ICC) in Tokyo in summer 2000. A new, two-year-long exhibition "Get in Touch" that features the Tangible Media group's work opened at Ars Electronica Center (Linz, Austria) in September 2001. Prior to MIT, from 1988-1994, he led a CSCW research group at the NTT Human Interface Laboratories, where his team invented TeamWorkStation and ClearBoard. In 1993 and 1994, he was a visiting assistant professor at the University of Toronto, Canada. He received B. E. degree in electronic engineering, M. E. and Ph. D. degrees in computer engineering from Hokkaido University, Japan, in 1978, 1980 and 1992, respectively.